The Labour Market Characteristics of the Child Care Workforce: Statistical Overview
This section provides a statistical overview of the child care workforce in Toronto with a focus on trends in the levels of employment, rates of unemployment, hours worked (full-time versus part-time), job tenure, income and share of employment (Immigrant or Canadian born). The child care industry and its labour market characteristics are essential because any changes will likely have implications on the well-being of the children and families using child care services.
Figure 11 shows how total employment in Child Day-Care Services has trended over the last decade, comparatively, in the City of Toronto, Greater Toronto Area and Ontario from 2013 to 2022. In all three geographies, the level of employment has been on a downward arc, following a pattern of decline over the last decade with exceptions in the years 2015 and 2019.
In 2022, 13% of employment in the child care industry in Toronto CMA comprised of 13% of newcomer immigrants (immigrants landed 5 years or earlier). This was two times more than the newcomer immigrants employed at all other industry at 6% in Toronto, CMA for the year 2022.
Figure 12 above compares the average Job Tenure (in years), for workers in child care services in Toronto, Ontario and Canada, for the year 2022. It appears that the average job tenure of worker in the child care industry in Toronto was 7 years compared to an average tenure of 6 years in Canada and Ontario during the same period. However, when compared to the average job tenure in all other industries, workers in the Child Day-Care Services in Ontario and Canada spend two fewer years in a job. In the case of Toronto, the average job tenure is the same 7 years for workers in all other industries as well as the Child Day-care Services industry.
When it comes to unemployment, different industries and occupations are affected in distinct ways by the changes in economic circumstances. Figure 13 compares the trend in the unemployment rate in the child care industry with all other industries in Ontario.
It appears that over the years the unemployment rate in the child care industry has fared better than the unemployment rate in all other industries. Of course, the rate took a significant dip rising to 12.5% compared to 9.6% for all other industries during the pandemic. In 2022, the unemployment rate in the child care industry stood at 3.6% lower compared to the unemployment rate of 5.6% in all other industries but higher than the pre-pandemic level of child care industry unemployment rate at 2.2% in 2019.